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Sejarah Pariwisata Gianyar

August 27, 2015

Kabupaten Gianyar merupakan salah satu Kabupaten dari 9 Kabupaten / Kota yang ada di Provinsi Bali yang kaya akan keanekaragaman seni, adat dan budaya yang masi tetap berkembang dan lestari sampai saat ini, sehingga dikenal sebagai Kabupaten seni.

Pembangunan kepariwisataan di Kabupaten Gianyar yang berbasis kemasyarakatan, berkelanjutan mempunyai daya saing global, berdasarkan “ Tri Hita Karana ’’ yaitu hubungan baik antara manusia dengan Pencipta, hubungan manusia dengan sesame serta hubungan manusia dengan alam.

Pembangunan pariwisata yang dikembangkan di kabupaten Gianyar yakni ?“ Pariwisata Budaya ’’ yang bernafaskan Agama Hindu yang didukung oleh pembangunan sektor pertanian dalam arti luas dan industri pendukung lainnya.

Daya dukung sektor pertanian dalam hal ini seperti adanya subak sebagai warisan leluhur kita yang masih lestari dengan sistem irigasi yang tetap hidup sebagai tatanan organisasi tradisional.

 

Sejarah Singkat Kepariwisataan di Kabupaten Gianyar

Kepariwisataan Gianyar bermula pada tahun 1920 – an saat Walter Spies seorang pelukis asing kelahiran Jerman yang menetap di Ubud, di tepi sungai wos tepatnya di Campuhan Ubud.

Nama Walter Spies cukup melegenda di Bali. Kemasyuran nama Walter Spies telah tertulis dalam buku “ Bali Pariwisata Budaya dan Budaya Pariwisata ” karya penulis Perancis Michael Picard ( 2006 ) sempat diulas kiprah Walter Spies sebagai salah satu Pioneer Pariwisata Bali selama menetap di Ubud.

Spies tiba di Bali dalam era penjajahan Belanda di tahun 1927 dan menetap belasan tahun di Bali. Selama periode itu Spies menjadi orang yang banyak mengetahui tentang Bali. Dia bahkan menjadi pemandu bagi para seniman, penulis tokoh lainnya yang berkunjung ke Bali.

Tokoh Puri Ubud kala itu Cokorda Gede Agung Sukawati mengembangkan tempat tinggal Walter Spies yang tak lain merupakan tempat miliknya menjadi Guest House.?Seiring berjalannya waktu makin banyak wistawan asing yang berkunjung ke Gianyar khususnya Ubud, sehingga makin bertambah pula sarana dan prasarana penginapan yang dibangun oleh masyarakat setempat.

Setelah Masa Pasca Kemerdekaan kemudian dibangun Museum Puri Lukisan pertama di Ubud yang diprakarsai oleh Tokoh Puri Ubud Cokorda Gede Agung Sukawati bersama Yayasan Pita Maha dengan nama “ Museum Puri Lukisan Ratna Warta ” yang peletakan batu pertama dilakukan oleh Perdana Menteri Indonesia kala itu Mr. Ali Sastroamidjojo pada tahun 1954 dan diresmikan oleh Menteri Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan RI, Mohammad Yamin pada tahun 1956. ?Pada era tahun 1990 sampai 2000 berdiri hotel berbintang di wilayah Ubud untuk menyambut kehadiran wisatawan asing yang semakin banyak berkunjung ke Kabupaten Gianyar.?Pada saat ini masyarakat Kabupaten Gianyar sangat merasakan manfaat dari sektor pariwisata bagi kehidupan mereka sehari – hari, sehingga seluruh elemen masyarakat wajib menjaga keamanan dan faktor – faktor lain yang mendukung pengembangan kepariwisataan.

Sejarah Gianyar

August 27, 2015

Pre-History Period
Gianyar is one of nine regencies or cities in Bali which has the most numer­ous of archeological heritage from the prehistoric to either historic times of the kingdoms periods in Bali.Many relics were found at along the river Patanu that lies between the district of Blahbatuh and Tampak­siring. An admiration of the ancient Bali, Rumphius first published a book in 1750 titled “Amboinche Re­teitkamer” and also the notes of his journey with W.O.J Niurenkamp’s in 1905 about the archeological sites.In the pre-historic times, found some archeological relics such as cave, stone tools, sarcophagus and some others.Those are still stored in Archaeological Museum’ Purbakala” in Bedulu.
Hunting Period
Few evidences in a very simple level have been found in the period of hunting and gathering food. In Gianyar regency, the stone tools which were specifically used in the period of hunting are stored in Gedung Arca Museum Bedulu and can be classified as perimbas ax, hood handheld, hand­held chisel, shaved, and the others. The life in the period of hunting and gathering food was entirely dependent on the natural environment. They lived wandering from one place to another.
Farming Period
The farming period in Bali was marked by the discov­ery of a stone carving in a variety of sizes, belincung and plane trees. These tools were not found as an archeo­logical relics, but were of a loose discovery found in the area Payangan. In this farming period, people have start­ed to leave the hunting period. People began to set­tle down and get to know the irrigation system, subak.The inscription of Tengkulak in the government of Maraka­ta (1023) mentioned the term amabaki or cutting forests down, amaluku or plowing, atanema (planting), amaum (weeding),ahani or harvesting rice, anatu or pounding rice.This inscription has confirmed that subak has been known as one of the traditional organizations in the farming life in Bali

Smithery Period
People’s lives in this period have had strong foundations compared to the past. Smithery period was characterized by a rapid of the technological advances of metallurgy, i.e. the findings of metal ores and metal melting way to serve va­rieties of objects. Number of objects made of bronze have been found in the area as a result of amazing work and high creativity. One of the famous found objects from this period is the bronze, Nekara which is still saved and sanctified by the people in the temple Penataran Sasih, Pejeng.

HISTORY PERIOD AND ARCHAEOLOGICAL HERITAGE
In this period, Bali has already entered the era of history, with the discovery of clay stupikas around the village of Pejeng, Bedulu, and Pura Pegulingan Basangambu Manukaya in Ba­sangambu village, Tampaksiring in 700 Saka (778 M). This was the time when the written stone inscriptions and Buddhist Mantram stamp found dating from 804 Saka or 882 (8th century). The existing heritages are closely related to the de­velopment of several dynasties of ancient Balinese kings like Singamandewa dynasty, the ruling dynasty of Warmadewa from the 8th to the 14th century following the influence of the kingdom of Majapahit to Bali.

Based on the appropriate study of history can be described the kings who ruled in Bali as follows:

1. Sri Kesari Warmadewa, was the first king mentioned in the inscriptions of King Kesari and considered the start    of the dynasty of King Warmadewa.
2. Sri Ugrasena (837 – 858 Caka)
3. Sang ratu Sri Haji Tabanandra Warmadewa & Sang Ratu Luhur Sri Shubardika Dharmadewi (877-889 Caka)

Museum collections of ancient archae­olo
                Jayasingha Warmadewa (882 Caka)

                • Sri Janashadu Warmadewa (897 Caka)

                • Sri Maharaja Sri Wijaya Mahadewi (905 Caka)

                • Sri Gunapriyadharmapatni (911 – 923 Caka)

                • Sri Dharmawangsawardana Marakatapangkasthano Tunggadewo (944 – 948 Caka)

                • Anak Wungsu (971-999 Caka)

                • Sri Walaprabu (1001-1010 Caka)

                • Sri Sakalendukirana (1010 – 1023 Saka)

                • Sri Gunadhipa (1037 – 1041 Caka)

                • Sri jayasakti (1055 – 1072 Caka)

                • Sri Ragajaya (1077 Caka)

                • Paduka Sri maharaha Haji Jaya Pangus (1099 – 1103 Caka)

                • Ekajaya Lancana and Sri Arjarya Dengjaya ( 1122 Caka)

                • Sri Adikuntiketana or Batara Guru I (1126 Caka)

                • Batara Parameswara sri Hyang Ning Hyang Adi Dewalancana (1182 caka)

                • Batara Sri Mahaguru II (1246 Caka)

                • Batara Sri Astasura Ratna Bumi Banten (1259 Caka)

 

INFLUENCE OF HINDU PRIESTS’

COMING IN GIANYAR

PRIEST MARKANDEYA

On his journey to Bali from Mount Raung, East Java by down-hilling the Wos river (in Champuan Ubud) to the north of the village now known as Taro village, Priest Mar­kandeya with his followers cut the forests down for settle­ments and farming areas. This moment was considered as the beginning of the village and subak in Bali. In his way to spread his lessons and build sanctuaries, Markandeya first harbored “Panca Datu” - five kinds of metal (gold, silver, iron, copper, and brass) and then accompanied by the ceremony as a means to pray for safety . The place is named Basukihan or Besakih, the largest temple in Bali.

PRIEST KUTURAN

The coming of Priest Kuturan to Bali is to organize and improve the religious and social life such as the customs. According to the Bali history books, in the 10th – 11th cen­tury there were many sects emerged in accordance with the spiritual teachings of the sects. As for sects that de­veloped in that era including : Shiva Sidanta, Pasupata, Bhairawa, Wesnawa, Buddha, Brahman, Sage, Sora, and Ganapatya. With varieties of sects, there was a com­petition to win the public sympathy which was caus­ing a social conflicts in the religious and social society.At that time, the kingdom headed by married couples and Gunapryadarmapatni Warmadewa Udayana (989-1011 AD) ordered to hold a triangle meeting among the Siwa sect, Bhuda sect and other sects which was taken a place at Pura Samuan Tiga Bedulu headed by Priest Kuturan.

At the meeting held in the village temple Bedulu precise­ly Pura Samuan Tiga (now), got an agreement of sects sim­plification into three namely : Brahma, Wisnu, and Siwa and then known as the concept of tri murti. The agreement was finally spread out to the community around to bulid tem­ples such as Pura Desa to worship God Brahma, Pura Puseh to worship God Vishnu and Pura Dalem to worship God Siwa and those three temples are now known as Pura Khayangan Tiga. It can be concluded that the idea of Khayangan Tiga found in the traditional villages in Bali originated from the outcome of the meeting who chaired by mpu Kuturan at Pura Samuan Tiga, Bedulu.

IDA PEDANDE SAKTI WAWU RAWUH

Pedande Sakti Wawu Rawuh or Dhanghyang Nirata or Danghyang Dwijendra was believed as a powerful priest who came from the land of Java. He was very inspired and very knowledgeable in the term of religious, social, culture and arts. He delivered the Brahmanas and Siwa Priests who have been existing and spreading around the island to nowadays.

Blanco, arguably the most famous and successful artist to ever live in Bali, built his magnificent studio on top of a mountain overlooking the Campuan River. This flamboyant building, a unique blend of Balinese architecture imbued with the spirit of his native Spain, houses an interesting collection of works drawn from different periods of his long career. 

Rudana Museum is a museum that was conceptualized, built and developed with a comprehensive paradigm. By occupying the building that was specially designed as a museum, Museum Rudana incorporates the profane philosophy (holy), where each building in this Museum carries symbols of human devotion to God the mighty Creator.

 

As one who has lived in and been involved with the world of art, particularly the art of painting, my love for that world has grown daily. My interest and dedication increased dramatically after seeing the collections of two museums in Bali, the Puri Lukisan Museum and the Neka Museum. 

Neka Museum is a museum of art made ??for the love of a Suteja Wayan Neka against all forms of artin Bali. Both the painting and the visual arts. The museum is located on Highway Campuhan, Kedewatan village, Ubud, Gianyar Bali. 


Puri Lukisan Museum is a painting museum designed with Balinese traditional architecture that is integrated with pure nature and atmosphere of Ubud Village. It is situated in 200 meters from Puri Saren, a famous king palace of Ubud and it is separated by a small valley and up to a spacious plot of land with beautiful view. 

Village, District Blahbatu, Approximately 6 km from the city of Herzliya. Distance traveled to this locationis approximately 26 km with a travel time of approximately 40 minutes drive from Denpasar Bali, when using a motor vehicle. 


Not many people know the existence of this temple now. In fact, at the time of first Kuna Bali, this temple was so popular. Located at Blahbatuh

Relief yeh Pulu is located in Bedulu village, in ricefield area, about 300 meters in the east of Batulumbang village, less than 26 km from Denpasar, in situation of traffic lane Denpasar – Tampak Siring – Kintamani. This monument was found by “ Punggawa Ubud” on 1925, has researched and published by Archeological Department of Holland which was lead by Dr W. F Sutterhien on 1929.

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 Gianyar Government Tourism Office

Jln. Ngurah Rai, Gianyar - Bali - Indonesia (0361) 943554 This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.