Gianyar is one of nine regencies or cities in Bali which has the most numerous of archeological heritage from the prehistoric to either historic times of the kingdoms periods in Bali.Many relics were found at along the river Patanu that lies between the district of Blahbatuh and Tampaksiring. An admiration of the ancient Bali, Rumphius first published a book in 1750 titled “Amboinche Reteitkamer” and also the notes of his journey with W.O.J Niurenkamp’s in 1905 about the archeological sites.In the pre-historic times, found some archeological relics such as cave, stone tools, sarcophagus and some others.Those are still stored in Archaeological Museum’ Purbakala” in Bedulu.
Few evidences in a very simple level have been found in the period of hunting and gathering food. In Gianyar regency, the stone tools which were specifically used in the period of hunting are stored in Gedung Arca Museum Bedulu and can be classified as perimbas ax, hood handheld, handheld chisel, shaved, and the others. The life in the period of hunting and gathering food was entirely dependent on the natural environment. They lived wandering from one place to another.
The farming period in Bali was marked by the discovery of a stone carving in a variety of sizes, belincung and plane trees. These tools were not found as an archeological relics, but were of a loose discovery found in the area Payangan. In this farming period, people have started to leave the hunting period. People began to settle down and get to know the irrigation system, subak.The inscription of Tengkulak in the government of Marakata (1023) mentioned the term amabaki or cutting forests down, amaluku or plowing, atanema (planting), amaum (weeding),ahani or harvesting rice, anatu or pounding rice.This inscription has confirmed that subak has been known as one of the traditional organizations in the farming life in Bali
People’s lives in this period have had strong foundations compared to the past. Smithery period was characterized by a rapid of the technological advances of metallurgy, i.e. the findings of metal ores and metal melting way to serve varieties of objects. Number of objects made of bronze have been found in the area as a result of amazing work and high creativity. One of the famous found objects from this period is the bronze, Nekara which is still saved and sanctified by the people in the temple Penataran Sasih, Pejeng.
HISTORY PERIOD AND ARCHAEOLOGICAL HERITAGE
In this period, Bali has already entered the era of history, with the discovery of clay stupikas around the village of Pejeng, Bedulu, and Pura Pegulingan Basangambu Manukaya in Basangambu village, Tampaksiring in 700 Saka (778 M). This was the time when the written stone inscriptions and Buddhist Mantram stamp found dating from 804 Saka or 882 (8th century). The existing heritages are closely related to the development of several dynasties of ancient Balinese kings like Singamandewa dynasty, the ruling dynasty of Warmadewa from the 8th to the 14th century following the influence of the kingdom of Majapahit to Bali.
Based on the appropriate study of history can be described the kings who ruled in Bali as follows:
1. Sri Kesari Warmadewa, was the first king mentioned in the inscriptions of King Kesari and considered the start of the dynasty of King Warmadewa.
2. Sri Ugrasena (837 – 858 Caka)
3. Sang ratu Sri Haji Tabanandra Warmadewa & Sang Ratu Luhur Sri Shubardika Dharmadewi (877-889 Caka)
Museum collections of ancient archaeolo
Jayasingha Warmadewa (882 Caka)
• Sri Janashadu Warmadewa (897 Caka)
• Sri Maharaja Sri Wijaya Mahadewi (905 Caka)
• Sri Gunapriyadharmapatni (911 – 923 Caka)
• Sri Dharmawangsawardana Marakatapangkasthano Tunggadewo (944 – 948 Caka)
• Anak Wungsu (971-999 Caka)
• Sri Walaprabu (1001-1010 Caka)
• Sri Sakalendukirana (1010 – 1023 Saka)
• Sri Gunadhipa (1037 – 1041 Caka)
• Sri jayasakti (1055 – 1072 Caka)
• Sri Ragajaya (1077 Caka)
• Paduka Sri maharaha Haji Jaya Pangus (1099 – 1103 Caka)
• Ekajaya Lancana and Sri Arjarya Dengjaya ( 1122 Caka)
• Sri Adikuntiketana or Batara Guru I (1126 Caka)
• Batara Parameswara sri Hyang Ning Hyang Adi Dewalancana (1182 caka)
• Batara Sri Mahaguru II (1246 Caka)
• Batara Sri Astasura Ratna Bumi Banten (1259 Caka)
INFLUENCE OF HINDU PRIESTS’
COMING IN GIANYAR
On his journey to Bali from Mount Raung, East Java by down-hilling the Wos river (in Champuan Ubud) to the north of the village now known as Taro village, Priest Markandeya with his followers cut the forests down for settlements and farming areas. This moment was considered as the beginning of the village and subak in Bali. In his way to spread his lessons and build sanctuaries, Markandeya first harbored “Panca Datu” - five kinds of metal (gold, silver, iron, copper, and brass) and then accompanied by the ceremony as a means to pray for safety . The place is named Basukihan or Besakih, the largest temple in Bali.
The coming of Priest Kuturan to Bali is to organize and improve the religious and social life such as the customs. According to the Bali history books, in the 10th – 11th century there were many sects emerged in accordance with the spiritual teachings of the sects. As for sects that developed in that era including : Shiva Sidanta, Pasupata, Bhairawa, Wesnawa, Buddha, Brahman, Sage, Sora, and Ganapatya. With varieties of sects, there was a competition to win the public sympathy which was causing a social conflicts in the religious and social society.At that time, the kingdom headed by married couples and Gunapryadarmapatni Warmadewa Udayana (989-1011 AD) ordered to hold a triangle meeting among the Siwa sect, Bhuda sect and other sects which was taken a place at Pura Samuan Tiga Bedulu headed by Priest Kuturan.
At the meeting held in the village temple Bedulu precisely Pura Samuan Tiga (now), got an agreement of sects simplification into three namely : Brahma, Wisnu, and Siwa and then known as the concept of tri murti. The agreement was finally spread out to the community around to bulid temples such as Pura Desa to worship God Brahma, Pura Puseh to worship God Vishnu and Pura Dalem to worship God Siwa and those three temples are now known as Pura Khayangan Tiga. It can be concluded that the idea of Khayangan Tiga found in the traditional villages in Bali originated from the outcome of the meeting who chaired by mpu Kuturan at Pura Samuan Tiga, Bedulu.
IDA PEDANDE SAKTI WAWU RAWUH
Pedande Sakti Wawu Rawuh or Dhanghyang Nirata or Danghyang Dwijendra was believed as a powerful priest who came from the land of Java. He was very inspired and very knowledgeable in the term of religious, social, culture and arts. He delivered the Brahmanas and Siwa Priests who have been existing and spreading around the island to nowadays.